In some cases we'll want to provide user accounts on the servers we administrate, or we'll want to set up servers for others to use. The process of creating accounts is fairly straightforward, but there are a few things to know about how user accounts work.
The /etc/passwd file contains information
about the users on your system.
There is a man page that describes the file, but
man pages are divided into sections (see
man man), and
the man page for the
passwd file is in section 5.
Therefore in order to read the man page
for the /etc/passwd file,
we run the following command:
man 5 passwd
Before we proceed, let's take a look at a single line of the file. Below I'll show the output for a made up user account:
grep "peter" /etc/passwd peter:x:1000:1000:peter,,,:/home/peter:/bin/bash
The line starting with peter is a colon separated line. That means that the line is composed of multiple fields each separated by a colon.
man 5 passwd tells us what each field indicates.
The first field is the login name,
which in this case is peter.
The second field, marked x, marks the password field.
This file does not contain the password, though.
The passwords, which are hashed and salted,
for users are stored in the /etc/shadow file,
which can only be read by the root user
(or using the
Hashing a file or a string of text is a process of running a hashing algorithm on the file or text. If the file or string is copied exactly, byte for byte, then hashing the copy will return the same value. If anything has changed about the file or string, then the hash value will be different. By implication, this means that if two users on a system use the same password, then the hash of each will be equivalent. Salting a hashed file (or file name) or string of text is a process of adding random data to the file or string. Each password will have a unique and mostly random salt added to it. This means that even if two users on a system use the same password, salting their passwords will result in unique values.
The third column indicates the user's numerical ID, and
the fourth column indicates the users' group ID.
The fifth column repeats the login name, but
could also serve as a comment field.
Comments are added using certain commands (discussed later).
The fifth field identifies the user's home directory,
which is /home/peter.
The sixth field identifies the user's default shell,
The user name or comment field merely repeats the login name here,
but it can hold specific types of information.
We can add comments using the
Comments include the user's full name,
their home and work phone numbers,
their office or room number, and so forth.
To add a full name to user peter's account,
we use the -f option:
sudo chfn -f "Peter Parker" peter
The /etc/passwd file is a standard Linux file, but
some things will change depending on the Linux distribution.
For example, the user and group IDs above start at 1000 because
peter is the first human account on the system.
This is a common starting numerical ID nowadays,
but it could be different on other Linux or Unix-like distributions.
The home directory could be different on other systems, too;
for example, the default could be located at /usr/home/peter.
Also, other shells exist besides
which is now the default shell on macOS;
so other systems may default to different shell environments.
The /etc/passwd file does not contain any passwords but
a simple x to mark the password field.
Passwords on Linux are stored in /etc/shadow and
are hashed with sha512,
which is indicated by $6$.
You need to be root to examine the shadow file or use
The fields are (see
man 5 shadow):
- login name (username)
- encrypted password
- days since 1/1/1970 since password was last changed
- days after which password must be changed
- minimum password age
- maximum password age
- password warning period
- password inactivity period
- account expiration date
- a reserved field
The /etc/shadow file should not be directly edited.
To set, for example, a warning that a user's password will expire,
we would use the
man passwd for options).
The following command would make it so the user peter
is warned that their password will expire in 14 days:
passwd -w 14 peter
The /etc/group file holds group information
about the entire system
man 5 group).
The file can be viewed by anyone on a system, by default,
but there is also a
that will return the groups for a user.
groups command by itself
will return your own memberships.
There are different ways to create new users and groups, and the following list includes most of the utilities to help with this. Note that, based on the names of the utilities, some of them are repetitive.
- useradd (8) - create a new user or update default new user information
- usermod (8) - modify a user account
- userdel (8) - delete a user account and related files
- groupadd (8) - create a new group
- groupdel (8) - delete a group
- groupmod (8) - modify a group definition on the system
- gpasswd (1) - administer /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
- adduser.conf (5) - configuration file for adduser(8) and addgroup(8) .
- adduser (8) - add a user or group to the system
- deluser (8) - remove a user or group from the system
- delgroup (8) - remove a user or group from the system
- chgrp (1) - change group ownership
The numbers within parentheses above indicate the
Therefore, to view the man page for the
man 8 userdel
Let's modify some default user account settings for new users, and then we'll create a new user account.
Before we proceed, let's review several important configuration files that establish some default settings:
The /etc/skel directory defines the home directory for new users. Whatever files or directories exist in this directory at the time a new user account is created will result in those files and directories being created in the new user's home directory. We can view what those are using the following command:
ls -a /etc/skel/
The /etc/adduser.conf file defines
the default parameters for new users.
It's in this file
where the default starting user and group IDs are set,
where the default home directory is located
(e.g., in /home/),
where the default shell is defined
where the default permissions are set for new
home user directories
Let's change some defaults for /etc/skel.
We need to use
sudo [command] or
su to become the root user.
I prefer to use
since this is a bit safer than becoming root.
Let's edit the default .bashrc file:
sudo nano /etc/skel/.bashrc
We want to add these lines at the end of the file.
This file is a configuration file for
and will be interpreted by Bash.
Therefore, lines starting with a hash mark
# Dear New User, # # I have made the following settings # to make your life a bit easier: # # make "c" a shortcut for "clear" alias c='clear'
nano again to create a README file.
This file will be added to the
home directories of all new users.
Add any welcome message you want to add,
plus any guidelines for using the system.
sudo nano /etc/skel/README
After writing (saving) and exiting
we can go ahead and create a new user named linus.
sudo adduser linus
We'll be prompted to enter a password for the new user,
plus comments (full name, phone number, etc).
Any of these can be skipped by pressing enter.
You can see from the output of the
below that I added some extra information:
grep "linus" /etc/passwd linus:x:1003:1004:Linus Torvalds,333,555-123-4567,:/home/linus:/bin/bash
Let's modify the minimum days before the password can be changed, and the maximum days of the password's lifetime:
sudo passwd -n 90 linus sudo passwd -x 180 linus
You can see these values by grepping the shadow file:
sudo grep "linus" /etc/shadow
To log in as the new user,
To exit the new user's account,
Because of the default configuration defined in /etc/adduser.conf,
the linus user only belongs to a group of the same name.
Let's create a new group that both
linus and peter belong to.
For that, we'll use the -a option for the
We'll also make the user peter the group administrator
using the -A option
man gpasswd for more details).
sudo groupadd developers sudo gpasswd -a peter developers sudo gpasswd -A peter developers sudo gpasswd -a linus developers grep "developers" /etc/group
Note: if a user is logged in when you add them to a group, they need to logout and log back in before the group membership goes into effect.
One of the benefits of group membership is that members can work in a shared directory.
Let's make the /srv/developers a shared directory. The /srv directory already exists, so we only need to create the developers subdirectory:
sudo mkdir /srv/developers
We'll have to change the default permissions, which are currently set to 0755:
ls -ld /srv ls -ld /srv/developers
Now we can change ownership of the directory:
sudo chgrp developers /srv/developers
The directory ownership should now reflect that it's owned by the developers group:
ls -ld /srv/developers
In order to allow group members to read and write to
the above directory,
we need to use the
chmod command in a way we haven't yet.
Specifically, we add a leading 2 sets the group identity.
The 770 indicates that the user and group owners of
the directory have read, write, and execute permissions
for the directory:
sudo chmod 2770 /srv/developers
Now either linus or peter can add, modify, and delete files in the /srv/developers directory.
You can keep the additional user and group on your system,
but know that you can also remove them.
offer great options
and may be preferable to the others utilities
man deluser or
If we want to delete the new user's account and the new group, these are the commands to use. The first command will create an archival backup of linus' home directory and also remove the home directory and any files in it.
deluser --backup --remove-home linus delgroup developers